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Zirconia oxygen sensor working principle

The Zirconia Oxygen Sensor utilizes a core containing two porous electrodes which are made of Zirconia ceramic elements combined with a thin layer of platinum. This element is what gives the sensor the ability to control the air-fuel ratio The zirconium dioxide oxygen sensor does NOT measure oxygen concentration %, but rather it measures partial pressure of oxygen in a gas or mixture of gases. The sensor employs a well proven, small zirconium dioxide based element at its heart and due to its innovative design does NOT require a reference gas At the core of SST's zirconia oxygen sensors is the sensing cell (Figure 1). The cell consists of two zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) square coated with a thin porous layer of platinum which serve as electrodes provide the necessary catalytic effect for the oxygen to dissociate, allowing the oxygen ions to be transported in and out of the ZrO2 Zirconia oxygen sensors are a type of electrochemical sensor. Zirconia dioxide is coated with a thin layer of platinum to form a solid‐state electrochemical fuel cell. Carbon monoxide, if present in the test gas, is oxidized by O2 to form CO2 and thereby triggers the flow of current

Zirconia oxygen sensor portfolio covering ranges from ppm

Principle: The Zirconium oxide sensor usually is furnished in a convenient probe format for direct-in-line insertion. The sensor is based on the zirconium oxide is the conductor of oxygen ion. The Zirconium exhibits very high resistance at room temperature Principle of Oxygen measurement: A disk of zirconium oxide powder is mixed with a small amount of yttria. It is pressed and triggered. In the cooking process, the yttria is lost, which creates vacancies Its basic working principle is: under certain conditions, the potential difference is generated by the difference of oxygen concentration on the inside and outside sides of zirconia, and the greater the concentration difference is, the greater the potential difference is. The oxygen content in the atmosphere is 21% The Clark-type electrode is the most used oxygen sensor for measuring oxygen dissolved in a liquid. The basic principle is that there is a cathode and an anode submersed in an electrolyte. Oxygen enters the sensor through a permeable membrane by diffusion and is reduced at the cathode, creating a measurable electric current

As shown in the figure, when porous platinum electrodes are attached to both sides of the zirconia element to be heated up and gases of different partial oxygen concentrations are brought into contact with the respective surfaces of the zirconia, the device acts as an oxygen concentration cell / 11154 / C www.first-sensor.com contactfirst-sensor.com Page 2/10 Operating principle and construction of XYA zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors Subect to change without notice 1.1 Partial pressure Definition: The partial pressure is defined as the pressure of a single gas component in a mixture of gases. It corresponds to the total pressur

How Does a Zirconia Oxygen Sensor Work? CO2Meter

  1. Oxygen sensors do this through a chemical reaction inside the sensor itself; in this article we will explain the evolution and application of this very important piece of the fuel injection puzzle. Oxygen sensors work through a chemical reaction. The core or element of the sensor is Zirconia ceramic with a thin layer of platinum
  2. The zirconia oxygen analyzer is suitable for measurements of ppm to % levels of oxygen in a gas or mixture of gases. The zirconia cell is an electrochemical galvanic cell employing a high temperature ceramic sensor containing stabilised zirconium oxide
  3. Using the sensor to measure and control the combustion atmosphere can not only stabilize and improve product quality, but also shorten the production cycle and save energy. The working principle of the oxygen sensor on the car is similar to that of a dry battery, and the zirconium oxide element in the sensor acts like an electrolyte

The detection principle of the zirconia analyzer is the oxygen concentration difference battery The basic working principle is: under certain conditions, the difference in oxygen concentration between the inner and outer sides of zirconia is used to generate a potential difference, and the greater the concentration difference, the greater the potential difference. The oxygen content in the atmosphere is 21%

Oxygen sensors work by producing their own voltage when they get hot (approximately 600°F). On the tip of the oxygen sensor that plugs into the exhaust manifold is a zirconium ceramic bulb. The inside and the outside of the bulb is coated with a porous layer of platinum, which serve as the electrodes An oxygen sensor also can be referred to as a Lambda sensor, an O ­2 sensor, or a Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HEGO) sensor. It is a feedback sensor used by the Engine Control Module (ECM) to perform closed loop control of engine fueling and, if a post catalytic converter sensor is present, monitor catalytic converter function

Zirconia Oxygen Sensor Function - How they work

  1. The zirconia carbon sensor is really an oxygen sensor. The primary mechanism for electrical current flow in many ceramic electrolytes is ionic conduction, in this case via Oxygen ions. Typical construction, basic theory, opening equations and applications are covered. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this paper is to describe the typical zirconia.
  2. ing whether a zirconia lambda sensor and its heating is functioning correctly, different possible deviations from the example signals are mentioned along with probable causes
  3. They can be classified attending to their sensing material and their working principle: Zirconia binary Oxygen Sensors (Zr), Titania binary Oxygen Sensors (Ti) and Wide Band Oxygen Sensors. The Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of each kind of Oxygen Sensor

How does an Oxygen Sensor Work? - GasLab

  1. Ceramic oxygen sensor. It is well-known that ,at high temperature, stabilized zirconia conducts oxygen ions. Utilizing the properties, huge number of zirconia oxygen sensor have been used especially for automotive application. Structure of Fujikura's oxygen sensor is different from the previous ones
  2. Since zirconia is an electrolyte that conducts only oxygen ions at temperatures in excess of 600 °C, the voltage generated between the electrodes (i.e. the cell output) is a function of the ratio of the oxygen partial pressure on the inner electrode and its temperature
  3. Its basic working principle is: under certain conditions, the difference in oxygen concentration between the inside and outside of zirconia is used to generate a potential difference, and the greater the concentration difference, the greater the potential difference. The oxygen content in the atmosphere is 21%

Oxygen sensor (zirconia) The purpose of this test is to evaluate the operation of a zirconia type oxygen sensor during engine running conditions based on its output voltage and response time. How to perform the test View connection guidance notes Working Principle The exhaust oxygen sensors produce a voltage signal that identifies the amount of unused oxygen in the exhaust. Heating a zirconia element in the tube generates a voltage that varies according to the amount of oxygen in the exhaust vessel to that residing in the outside environment How does a zirconia oxygen sensor work? This type of oxygen analyzer uses a zirconia ceramic cell to determine the oxygen concentration. This type of oxygen sensor is called a high-temperature electrochemical sensor. The zirconia cell will be placed across two electrodes and the potential is created by these two electrodes Ceramic oxygen sensor It is well-known that,at high temperature, stabilized zirconia conducts oxygen ions. Utilizing the properties, huge number of zirconia oxygen sensor have been used especially for automotive application. Structure of Fujikura's oxygen sensor is different from the previous ones

Modern vehicle O2 sensors work according to the same principles that the original Nernst cells did. A zirconia bulb lined with platinum facilitates the transfer of the oxygen ions between air inside the sensor and the exhaust gases that flow over it at temperatures higher than 600 degrees Fahrenheit How to Test Oxygen Sensors. Since the O2 sensor plays an important role in keeping your engine running as efficiently and cleanly as possible, it's important to make sure that it's working properly. Most oxygen sensors typically last 30,000 to 50,000 miles, or 3-5 years, with newer sensors lasting even longer with proper maintenance and upkeep of the sensors play a crucial role in determining the overall characteristics of the sensors. Principle of Operation Electrochemical sensors operate by reacting with the gas of interest and producing an elec-trical signal proportional to the gas concen-tration. A typical electrochemical sensor con-sists of a sensing electrode (or working elec The zirconia exhaust gas oxygen sensor is a key component in closed loop engine emissions control systems. An equivalent circuit model of the sensor is derived from fundamental electrochemical principles. In this model, sensor electrode resistance and capacitance are separated from the zirconia ele

How do Electrochemical Sensors Work? To put things simply, this sensor type works by means of gas diffusion. Gas finds its way into the outlet of the membrane on top of the sensor housing. Once the gas reaches the working electrode, an electrochemical reaction occurs. This reaction is either an oxidation or a reduction, depending on the type of. Oxygen measurement with an zirconium oxide sensor. Zirconium oxide is the most common component of the element Zirconium. ZrO 2 is an oxide ceramic or refractory, which crystallizes in 3 lattice structurs. By doping the zirconium dioxide with Yttria, defects or voids are introduced in the crystal lattice The front oxygen sensor, also known as the air-fuel ratio sensor, provides a signal to the ECU to correct the fuel injection amount. Located behind the exhaust manifold, the exhaust gas after combustion of the cylinder reaches the front oxygen sensor Why are conventional zirconia oxygen sensors not as accurate as wide band O2S? Zirconia does not detect exact air fuel ratio, only rich and lean A wide band O2 sensor has the ability to supply air fuel ratio information to the PCM from mixture as low as ______(rich) and high as _____(lean) The functional principle of an oxygen probe is based upon the comparison of the two oxygen partial pressures in two separate gaseous mediums. The zirconia which represents the measuring element has faults in its crystal structure, i.e. some of the sites which could be occupied by oxygen ions are free

Basics of Zirconia Oxygen analyzer/sensor & its working

4 con- tained in sampling gas on the principle that different atomic molecules have an absorption spectrum in the wave band of infrared rays, and the intensity of absorption is determined by the Lambert-Beer law. Since this instrument incorporates a compact O 2sensor, it allows measuring up to 5 components simulta- neously by using the built-in Sensors and Actuators B 44 (1997) 321-326 A first-principles model of the zirconia oxygen sensor A.D. Brailsford, M. Yussouff *, E.M. Logothetis Scientific Research Laboratory, Physics Department, M.D. 3028, Ford Motor Company, 20000Rotunda Dri6e, Dearborn, MI 48121-2053, USA Accepted 10 April 1997 Abstrac Oxygen analyzers provide valuable measurements in combustion control, process quality, safety and environmental applications. These are used in a variety of measurement scenarios including, but not limited to, boiler trimming in power plants, furnace optimization in refinery and petrochemical applications, process safety in vent headers, and product quality in ethylene production Measuring principle: Direct-insertion zirconia system Measuring range: 0 to 5, 10 or 25 vol% O2 (Changed by IN-SITU ZIRCONIA OXYGEN ANALYZER < ZIRCOMAT-C > FEATURES SPECIFICATIONS Oxygen detector (ZFK2, 5) when oxygen concentration in air around sensor changes. *3 Blow down air inlet pressure in 200 to 300kpa. *2 Ref. ai

100% solid zirconia oxygen sensor . Revision 1 . A2 - USER MANUAL Page 2 of 18 UPC_MAN027 . you have purchased the technologically most advanced solid zirconia sensor on the market. The A. 2. working probe for the entire 12-month warranty period as long a Principle of Operation: When voltage is applied to a zirconia electrolyte cell, oxygen is pumped through the zirconia disc from the cathode side to the anode side because the carriers of the current flowing through the zirconia electrolyte are oxygen ions. By attaching a cap with a pinhole on the cathode side o In the cell, two glass spheres filled with nitrogen gas are suspended with strong metal wire. When oxygen molecules having a large magnetic susceptibility flow there, the molecules are pulled toward the stronger magnetic field zone and the spheres are moved away from the zone The system configuration of zirconia oxygen analyzers is divided into two main types, those using either a general-purpose detector (measurement gas temperature of 700ºC and below) or those using a high-temperature detector (measurement gas temperature of 1400ºC and below)

昶艾新闻--上海昶艾电子科技有限公司

Most industrial zirconia oxygen sensors are based on electrochemical cell with stabilized zirconia solid electrolytes working in potentiometric mode PRINCIPLE OF ZIRCONIA OXYGEN ANALYZERS Figure 2 Measurement Principle At lower temperatures, the crystal structure of zirconia (zirconium dioxide: ZrO 2) usually transforms from cubic to tetragon, and monocline, and the accompanying change in volume during the transition causes the crystal to crack The working principle of the oxygen sensor is very simple. In layman's terms, it is similar to the battery. The zirconium oxide element inside the sensor has the same effect as the electrolyte in the battery

Zirconium-oxide sensors are based on the principle of a solid-state electrochemical cell. A layer of yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide is typically heated to between +600°C and +700°C, allowing oxygen ions to pass through it from a higher concentration to a lower concentration The working principle of the o2 sensor is to check the oxygen amount within the exhaust. Firstly, this oxygen was added to the fuel for good ignition. The communication of this sensor can be done with the help of a voltage signal. So the oxygen status in the exhaust will be decided by the computer of the car

Oxygen analyzer - Zirconium oxide sensor Instrumentation

The cell (sensor) at the tip of the detector is made of ceramic (zirconia element). Do not drop the detector or subject it to pressure stress. • Do NOT allow the sensor (probe tip) to make contact with anything when installing the detector. • Avoid any water dropping directly on the probe (sensor) of the detector when installing it An air-fuel ratio meter monitors the air-fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine.Also called air-fuel ratio gauge, air-fuel meter, or air-fuel gauge, it reads the voltage output of an oxygen sensor, sometimes also called AFR sensor or lambda sensor.. The original narrow-band oxygen sensors became factory installed standard in the late 1970s and early 1980s working principle: When a voltage is applied to the zirconia electrolyte unit, oxygen is pumped from the cathode side of the zirconia substrate to the anode side in the form of oxygen ions by the pump unit Thick-film zirconia gas sensors are normally screen-printed onto a planar substrate. A sandwich of electrode-electrolyte-electrode is fired at a temperature sufficient to instigate sintering of the zirconia electrolyte. The resulting porous zirconia film acts as both the electrolyte and as the diffusion barrier through which oxygen diffuses

Principle Of Oxygen Sensor - cowtotalautoparts

As a narrow-range or zirconia oxygen sensor reaches an operating temperature of about 600° F, it's designed to switch voltages from lean at about 0.2 volts, to rich at about 0.8 volts. A stoichiometric 14.7:1 air/fuel ratio occurs at approximately 0.5 volts, which is mid-point on a 0-1 volt narrow-range zirconia sensor The successful application of solid electrolyte oxygen sensor inspired people to develop NO x sensor by using the same principle. The sensors based on a NO + conducting solid electrolyte prepared by ionically exchanging Na + in Na + Ga 11 O 17 or Na + β ''-Al 2 O 3 with NO + were used as the most direct method to measure the NO content. However, the application of this kind of sensor was. An oxygen sensor also can be referred to as a Lambda sensor, an O2 sensor, or a Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HEGO) sensor. It is a feedback sensor used by the Engine Control Module (ECM) to perform closed loop control of engine fueling and, if a post catalytic converter sensor is present, monitor catalytic converter function O2 sensor. The Zirconia Lambda sensor which is by far the most common narrow band sensor is used to determine the air/fuel ratio in the combustion chamber by reading the oxygen demand of the residual exhaust gas. The sensor tip is made of catalytic material, is hot, and is subject to hot exhaust gas The Zirconia Oxygen Sensor System consists of SST's fast response (4s T90) zirconium dioxide (ZrO₂) screw fit sensor in conjunction with the OXY-LC oxygen sensor interface board. The system employs a well proven, zirconium dioxide element at its heart and, due to its innovative design, does not require a reference gas

Oxygen sensor - Wikipedi

Principle : Paramagnetic (dumbbell type) Range : 0 to 10, 21, 25, 50, 100 vol% (as specified) • Single-beam NDIR sensor with sample switching system + O 2 sensor In-Situ Zirconia Oxygen Analyzer for Hazardous Location <ZKME, ZFKE> • Insertion typ Sensor: TF-30: Receiver: DTF-201: Measurement principle: Zirconia 2-cell pump limit current form: Measurement range: Min. 0 - 100ppm to Max. 0 - 100%, Zero-point fixed free 4-range *Measurement of ≧25% O 2 is disabled. Measurement coverage: 0 - 25%: Calibration: Calibration gas air point + Max. 3-point calibration Air 1-point. O2 Sensor and Catalyst Monitor Currently, the most popular type of oxygen sensor in use is the zirconia oxygen sensor(see Figure 10). It is a signal generator that is fully functioning after 600° F. The zirconia oxygen sensor is a type of chemical battery

Oxygen Analyzer Working Principle - Inst Tool

How Automotive Engine Oxygen Sensors Wor

Zirconia Oxygen Analysis - Systech Illinoi

Thermox Ametek WDG-IV The same main principle for YokoJawa oxygen Analyzer using Zirconium Oxide material 12. Thermox Ametek WDG-IV 13. Sensor operation: A sample is drawn from the process stream by means of an air-operated aspirator and is immediately returned to the process. A portion of this gas rises past the oxygen measuring cell. 14 Wideband or Wide Range Air Fuel (WRAF) sensors don't generate a voltage signal like common zirconia oxygen sensors. An ordinary oxygen sensor produces a voltage signal of 0.8 to 0.9 volts when the air/fuel mixture is rich, then drops to 0.3 volts or less when the air/fuel mixture goes lean

What is the Principle of Oxygen Sensor? - Lifan Rear

Oxygen sensing can be achieved by means of different working principles: among others, electrochemical, pumping gauge, or resistive oxygen sensors have been developed in the past. One of the most usual systems is the electrochemical oxygen sensor, based on ceramic ion-conducting electrolytes These sensors are referred to by several names such as lambda sensors, AFR, LAF and wideband O2 sensor. A wideband sensor can detect oxygen content in the exhaust that's way below or way above the ideal air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1. More control of new lean-burning engines that emit ultra-low emissions is necessary today ZrO^-sensor and 1983 saw the start of series produc-tion i6). The sensor design is shown in diagrammatic form in Fig. 1. The basic construction and the in-Fig. 1 - Design of heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor stallation dimensions of this electrically heated sensor are largely identical with those of the un-heated sensor which Bosch has been. Capable of measuring flammable gas mixtures that cannot be measured by a zirconia oxygen analyzer. Because there is no sensor in the detecting section in contact with the sample gas, the paramagnetic system can also measure corrosive gases. Among the magnetic types, the paramagnetic system offers a faster response time than other systems A one wire or two wire unheated oxygen sensor is the earliest and most basic type of sensor. One wire sensors employ only a signal wire, while two wire versions also have a wire going to ground. Planar sensors use layers of zirconia and alumina bonded together. This technology allows for much faster warm up of the sensor because there is a.

The zirconia oxygen analyzer utilizes a solid electrolyte consisting mainly of zirconia (ZrO2) which con-ducts only oxygen ions at a high temperature. It is an oxygen sensor which measures, based on the principle of an oxygen concentration cell, the electromotive force produced due to the difference in oxy Dissolved Oxygen Analyzer has. 1. No electrolyte, no polarization. 2. No need to consume oxygen, not affected by the flow rate. 3. Built-in temperature sensor, automatic temperature compensation. 4. Not subject to sulfide and other chemical substances interference. 5. Drift small, fast response, more accurate measurement. 6 The Titania Oxygen sensor differs from the Zirconia sensor in that it cannot produce its own output voltage and is therefore reliant upon a 5 volt supply from the vehicle's ECM. The reference voltage is altered according to the engines air-fuel ratio, with a lean mixture returning a voltage as low as 0.4 volts and a rich mixture producing a. JZY-II series intelligent zirconia oxygen analyzer is a practical and reliable automatic analytical instrument. It can cooperate with various electric unit meters, conventional display recording instruments and DCS distributed control system to quickly and correctly detect and analyze the flue gas content generated by combustion equipment such as boilers, kiln and heating furnaces.

ratio sensor will not work in place of a regular O2 sensor, and etc. However, sensor styles are interchangeable. The replacement sensor may not look precisely as the old one did. 5. Treat the threads of the new oxygen sensor by applying an even layer of anti-seize lubricant (FIGURE 3) The Zirconia lambda sensor, by using precious metals, can determine the Oxygen difference between atmosphere and the exhaust gasses. The greater this difference, the higher the voltage it will produce, up to app 1volt. Lambda sensors will not operate until around 300 deg. They are heated by the exhaust and often have their own heater element

Sensor Impendence The zirconia sensor impedance is a basic measurement of the reliability of the oxygen reading. A probe or sensor with a high impedance reading will eventually produce erroneous signals. The analyzer checks the zirconia sensor impedance every 24 hours and if the impedance is above the maximum level for a specific temperature. How do I test an oxygen sensor through digital voltmeter testing? To do this test, you're going to need a digital multimeter (DMM). Note: This test is for traditional, zirconia O2 sensors (not wideband air/fuel ratio sensors). Set your multimeter to the millivolt (mV) DC setting or 2 DC Volts setting. Make sure your engine is switched off Working Principle: The core component of nitrogen and oxygen sensor is porous ZRO2, zirconia ceramic tube. It is a solid electrolyte. Porous platinum (PT) electrodes are sintered on both sides

Zirconia O2 Oxygen Sensor for High Oxygen Applications 1

Talking about the Detection Principle of Oxygen Analyze

SO-B0-001 Limiting Current Type Zirconia Oxygen Sensor Operational Principle When voltage is applied to a zirconia electrolyte cell, oxygen is pumped through the zirconia disc from the cathode side to the anode side because the carriers of the current flowing through the zirconia electrolyte are oxygen ions In this article, the various zirconia A/F sensors for automotive applications such as the stoichiometric λ sensor, the limiting current-type sensor, and the wide range A/F sensor were reviewed in the viewpoint of the necessity, structure, operation principle, long-term stability, and the algorithm for catalyst monitoring Description: The Zirconia Oxygen Sensor System offers a complete solution, removing the need for customers to develop their own electronics. Frequently used in combustion control systems, burning coal, oil, gas and biomass and in oxygen generation systems. The Zirconia. Electrical Outputs: Analog Voltage, Analog Curren

OXYGEN SENSORS /LAMBDA SENSOR/: PARTS, TYPES, WORKING

The Ntron Yellow Box is a compact, robust, transportable oxygen analyzer providing a versatile solution for high purity oxygen measurement applications. The zirconia sensor offers fast response time and a long service life with virtually no drift. The analyzer comprises of up to 3 discreet oxygen sensors for ppm & % oxygen up to 96% Simple, small and portable oxygen sensors were fabricated by tape casting technique. Yttria stabilized zirconia containing cordierite ceramics (YSZC) were used as a porous diffused layer of oxygen in pumping cell. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte, YSZC porous diffusion layer and heater-patterned ceramic sheets were prepared by co- firing method It is for this reason that the zirconia O 2 sensor is called a narrow-band O 2 sensor. Titanium oxygen sensor. The titanium O 2 sensor was used throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s on a limited basis. This sensor's semiconductor construction makes its operation different from that of the zirconia O 2 sensor

oxygen sensor, you can't hook up a voltmeter or oscilloscope to read the sensor's output directly. A wideband O2 sensor produces a current signal that varies not only in amplitude but direction. That makes it quite different from a conventional oxygen sensor that produces a voltage signal that bounces back and forth between 0.1 and 0.9 volts AutoZone's aftermarket oxygen sensors can keep your engine running efficiently because they are engineered to work as well or better than the OE part. The engine computer is responsible for calculating how much fuel the engine needs based on the amount of oxygen in the system, and it relies on a good O2 sensor to function properly You must identify what type of oxygen sensor you are working with before trying to do any test: Zirconia sensors, also known as 'narrowband oxygen sensors', these are the most common type. Zirconia sensors have two electrodes, which output 200mV (0.2V) in a 'lean' condition, and 800mV (0.8V) in a rich condition

How to understand Oxygen Sensor Locations (Bank 1 and BankParamagnetic Oxygen O2 Gas Analysis Device With GermanyHow to Replace Upstream O2 Sensor 07-12 Toyota Camry - YouTubeP0420 Engine Warning Light Trouble Code O2 Sensor VW GolfP2196 – Heated oxygen sensor (H02S) 1, bank 1 – signal

Hall Effect sensors work on a related principle, but sense current reversions caused by the passing gear-wheel. Oxygen Sensors Oxygen sensors represent a science in and of themselves, and rely on a fascinating electrochemical phenomena wherein certain crystals (like cubic zirconia) actually produce an electrical current when heated analyze the performance and basic working principles of these sensors. Solid-State Gas Sensors Based on the sensing principles, gas sensors can be classified in the following three categories: (i) solid elec- nearly 100,000,000 zirconia oxygen sensors per year, cover- ing 70% of the Japanese market. 34 The schematic of such a zirconia-based. The zirconia oxygen analyzer AZ100 is designed primarily for small gas- and oil-fired boilers in industry, power, hospitals and ships. It is also used for inert gas generators and oxygen enrichment applications. The AZ100 is a complete system comprising a zirconia oxygen probe and a wall- or panel-mount instrument There are two kinds of oxygen sensors: zirconia and titania. The zirconia oxygen sensor is constructed in a bulb configuration from zirconia dioxide. A thin platinum plate is attached to both the inside and outside of the bulb. The inner area is exposed to the atmosphere and the outside is exposed to the exhaust. When the sensor is heated t

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