Examples of metal ores

Metals and their ores complete list - Day Today G

  1. g competitive exams like SSC, UPSC etc
  2. Platinum is the second-most valuable metal ore and is found in thin layers of sulfides. Being extremely rare, it is commonly found in microscopic amounts mixed in with other metal ores, and can be..
  3. e, such as titanium and alu
  4. 1. The most common metal ores are oxides and sulphides. 2. Sulphides are the oldest ores, formed in the Earth's history when there was a lot of sulphur from volcanic activity
  5. g compounds) such as gold (Figure 12.3. 1)

Examples of Metal Ores Education - Seattle P

The most important ore deposits, such as copper, silver, and iron, contain metals that are essential to industry and trade. Copper ore is mined for a wide range of industrial applications. Copper, an exceptional electricity conductor, is used as an electrical wire. 4 Very few metals such as the noble metals, i.e., Gold, Silver, and Platinum etc. are present in their original metallic forms in nature. Metallurgy is the field of science which deals with the extraction of metals from ores which are naturally found in the environment Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, lead etc are the metals found in combined state. Minerals are the natural materials in which the metals and their compounds are found.. The iron minerals that are at present used as ores are hematite, magnetite, limonite, and siderite; also, occasionally ankerite, goethite, and turgite. Hematite is the most important iron ore. The iron content of the pure minerals is as follows: Ankerite is a carbonate of lime, magnesia, manganese, and iron For example, copper pyrite (CuFeS2), calamine (ZnCO3) etc. are minerals. A mineral from which metal can be economically extracted in a maximum amount is called an ore. Some examples of ores or metals are listed below in tabular form - Difference between Ores and Mineral

from minerals, including metals, chemicals used in manufacturing, food additives, etc. Ores are minerals that have a high concentration of a certain element, typically a metal. Examples are cinnabar (HgS), an ore of mercury, sphalerite (ZnS), an ore of zinc, or cassiterite (SnO 2), an ore of tin (Mineral) Metamorphic ores often contain lead, zinc, and silver, as well as some iron oxides. Sedimentary ore deposits include banded iron formations, and gold, platinum, zinc, tin, and even.. For example: Chromites ores [1]. These are classified into three grades: Metallurgical Ore with a high chromium content (minimum 68% chromium) and the chromium/iron ratio must not be less than 2.8/1, will be suitable for the manufacture of ferrochrome alloy or chromium metal. Table 1: Metallic minerals for other uses than metal production An ore is any naturally-occurring source of a metal that you can economically extract the metal from. Aluminum, for example, is the most common metal in the Earth's crust, occurring in all sorts of minerals. However, it isn't economically worthwhile to extract it from most of these minerals Specimen has a cut surface which exposes the ore inside the rock. When you tip the specimen in the light the x.s. through the ore crystals are very apparent : Gold Mine Ore Mineral # 1832 A close-up view of the specimen above showing the both the ore and some Rhodonite in the specimen which is common in ore samples from this location

What Are Some Examples of Ores? - Reference

Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals (such as native copper) not commonly concentrated in the crust of the Earth, or noble metals (normally not forming compounds) such as gold. To remove the elements of interest from the waste material and the ore crystals, the ores must be extracted The most common example of roasting is the oxidation of metal sulfide ores. The metal sulfide is heated in the presence of air to a temperature that allows the oxygen in the air to react with the sulfide to form sulfur dioxide gas and solid metal oxide. The solid product from roasting is often called calcine

Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals (such as native copper) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth's crust, or noble metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold. The ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals Iron can also be converted into steel, one of the most popular finished products of Iron ore with 98% of all iron ore mined going to its production. Iron ore is primarily mined and refined through a process called smelting. Smelting is a heating process in which the Iron ore is heated along with coke (charcoal) and limestone in a blast furnace Ore is a deposit in Earth's crust of one or more valuable minerals. The most valuable ore deposits contain metals crucial to industry and trade, like copper, gold, and iron.. Copper ore is mined for a variety of industrial uses. Copper, an excellent conductor of electricity, is used as electrical wire.Copper is also used in construction Ores: The minerals from which a metal can be profitably extracted are called ores. Metals found at the bottom of reactivity series are least reactive and they are often found in nature in free-state; such as gold, silver, copper, etc. Copper and silver are also found in the form of sulphide and oxide ores Ore Forming Minerals: Metallic & Non-Metallic Minerals . Certain kinds of mineral can be treated for metal extraction more easily than others; these are commonly referred to as ore minerals.Quite often, different minerals containing a particular metal occur together in a deposit, and are referred to as ore forming minerals. Ore minerals form as a result of special geologic processes and often.

Ores are naturally occurring rocks that contain metals or metal compounds in sufficient amounts to make it worthwhile extracting them. The method used to extract a given metal from its ore depends. The pyrite Jeremiah found in the river is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS 2. Minus a few exceptions, most sulfides are opaque, dense, and produce a dark streak. Due to their tendency.. The process of procuring metals from ores is called metallurgy and these naturally occurring compounds of metals are known as minerals. Metals are usually extracted from the earth by mining. Ores. All ores are minerals, but not all minerals are ores. Ores are those minerals which contain metals. The picture shown above is a gold-bearing ore For example, lead-zinc-silver ores in some parts of Mexico occur in dolomitic rather than pure limestone; the reverse is true at Santa Eulalia, where massive sulfide deposits end abruptly at the limestone-dolomite contact. This article was most recently revised and updated by William L. Hosch, Associate Editor. History at your fingertip

List Of Important Metals and Their Ores with Chemical

Ores have usually high traces of metals to be extracted and that's why these ores are of major importance in metal industry. Table below shows common ores of some metals and their extraction procedures. Bauxite, for example is an ore of aluminium containing around 60 %- 70 % of aluminium and it is usually extracted from this ore [7] Native copper, for example, is an ideal copper ore mineral. Ideal ore minerals are, however, uncommon. The most commonly mined ores are not ideal. Instead they are rich in ore minerals that can be processed relatively inexpensively to isolate desired components. The table seen here lists common ore minerals for various metals

Iron Ore Formation. Iron formation consists of iron ore such as siderite, magnetite, and hematite, with silica in the form of chert, jasper, etc., generally in bands, but sometimes not distinctly so. The bands of iron ore are at times high-grade, but are often mixed with a good deal of silica, the whole making an ore too lean for use without. (i) To convert carbonates ores into metal oxide. (ii) To remove water from the hydrated ores. (iii) To remove volatile impurities from the ore. For example : Calamine (ZnCO 3) is the ore of zinc which calcined i.e. heated strongly in the absence of air to convert into zinc oxide. During calcination, carbon dioxide gas is expelled

Of the base metal ore minerals, the most common primary ones are argentiferous galena, sphalerite, and pyrite, while native silver and the sulphides and arsenides are less common. Rich silver ore from the town of Tonopah in Nye county Nevada. Tonopah was one of the great epithermal silver and gold strikes of the early 20th century For example, metal ores, coal, oil, sand etc. For the purpose of definition, minerals are specifically defined as naturally occurring inorganic substances which are found in solid state. Minerals have a well-defined chemical structure, formula and crystal structures Reduction of metal halides with metals. In many cases, carbon cannot be used to reduce the metal oxide to the metal as the metal reacts with carbon to form the carbide instead. It is possible to avoid this problem by first converting the ore to the chloride, and then reducing the chloride with a more reactive metal such as magnesium or sodium Examples: Most Viking ships were powered by oars. Warships had several oarsmen per oar because they were so long. Ore The noun ore is used to describe a mineral from which metal can be extracted. Examples: In 2005, China was the top importer of ores and metals ahead of the USA and Japan Strong metals such as iron and metal alloys such as stainless steel are used to build structures, ships, and vehicles including cars, trains, and trucks. Some metals have specific qualities that dictate their use. For example, copper is a good choice for wiring because it is particularly good at conducting electricity

Metals Used for Decorative Arts 1. Iron Ore. Of all the known metals, iron is the most abundant of all and can be found in almost all elements; water, soil, and rocks. It is known to be a prized material from ancient times and iron objects have been discovered in Nineveh, Egypt, Roman Britain and ancient China Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals (such as native copper) not commonly concentrated in the crust of the Earth, or noble metals (normally not forming compounds) such as gold.To remove the elements of interest from the waste material and the ore crystals, the ores must be extracted In conclusion, in most cases, ores are simply metal oxides along with other small amounts of minerals. But not in all cases ores are metal oxides. For example, ZnS, Zinc Sulfide or also known as zincblendes is an ore of zinc. Extraction of Iron The ores obtained from the earth contain large quantities of foreign matter. These unwanted impurities, e.g. earth particles, rocky matter, sand limestone etc. present in an ore are called gangue or matrix. Prior to the extraction of the metal from the ore, it is necessary to separate, the ore from the gangue Metal from Ore. Ores are rocks or minerals from which a valuable substance - usually metal - can be extracted. Some common ores include galena (lead ore), bornite and malachite (copper), cinnabar (mercury), and bauxite (aluminum)

12.3: Metals and Ores - Chemistry LibreText

Ores Containing Cobalt. There are approximately 30 principal cobalt-bearing minerals and over 100 more which contain minor amounts of the metal or include cobalt as a substitute for other elements. Erythrite is an example of a secondary hydrated cobalt arsenate mineral Notes 2 CHEMISTRY MODULE - 6 Occurrence and Extraction of Metals Chemistry of Elements zlist and explain various methods for concentration of ores (gravity separation, magnetic separation, froth floatation and chemical method); zexplain different metallurgical operations : roasting, calcination and smelting with suitable examples; zchoose the reducing agent for a given ore Metallurgy in the Middle-east. Having already mentioned that metals appeared later in the archaeological record of north-western Europe than in the south and east, and that southern metal artefacts appeared to be more advanced than northern European forms of the same age, we can now support this with earlier discoveries from the middle-east, as the following examples demonstrate Ores. Minerals containing some metal are often labeled as ore minerals. The most common minerals in this group are various sulfides, oxides and native elements. Typical examples are pyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite, haematite, uraninite or native gold, silver and copper. Gems and precious stones. There is no solid definition of precious.

The metal containing solid, such as concentrate, ore, residue, or slag, often undergoes size reduction via crushing and grinding prior to leaching. One example of a leaching process that uses vat leaching is gold cyanidation, the process of extracting gold from low-grade ores Define a native metal and give examples of methods used to separate them. Describe the processes of carbon reduction and electrolysis for extracting metals from ore. Compare the energy requirements for native metal separation, carbon reduction and electrolysis, and give examples of metals extracted by these methods. (Image: Erdenebayar, Pixabay Metal ores are formed in the process of ore genesis, and they are extracted through mining. Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. Hydrometallurgy uses aqueous solutions to extract metals from ores ( leaching ) People have extracted minerals, for example iron and copper, from ores for thousands of years. Examples of how minerals were mined long ago can be found at archaeological sites in South-Africa, such as Mapungubwe. Today iron is extracted using coke (carbon) to make steel. South Africa has a large mining industry They are azurite and malachite, two of the ores of copper. The use of fire thus makes possible two significant new steps in the development of metallurgy: the casting of metal, by pouring it into prepared moulds; and the smelting of mineral ores to extract metal. Objects made from smelted copper, from as early as 3800 BC, are known in Iran

Some important ores and the metals present in these ores are listed in Table 18.1. 3 Occurrence and Extraction of Metals MODULE - 6 Notes Table 18.1 Some Important Ores Chemistry of Elements Type of Ore Metals (C ommon Ores) Native Metals Gold (A u), silver (Ag) For example, the tin ore,. Show examples including metal ores and compounds and contrast these with metals themselves. Ask students to identify the oxidised and reduced forms. Discuss the different properties linking back to metals and non-metals, compounds and elements (rsc.li/354CsQJ) and ions and atoms (rsc.li/2Pt75sM) For example, a metal can be extracted from its ore using more reactive metals as the reducing agents. However, this is usually not done on a large scale as it is expensive. Figure summarises the methods of extracting metals from their ores. In extracting metals, carbon in the form of coke is used. Carbon is widely used in the extraction of zinc. Molten metals tend to dissolve impurities from the ore. For example, many ores that contain native copper have arsenic compounds associated with them. When the ore is melted, the molten copper dissolves the arsenic. As a result, the metal from the furnace can be less pure than the individual metal grains that were originally in the ground When a metal ore is an ionic compound of that metal and a non-metal, the ore must usually be smelted (or heated with a reducing agent) to extract the pure metal. Many common metals, such as iron, are smelted using carbon as a reducing agent

Ores And Minerals - Definition, Types & Differences with

Ores are primary crafting materials necessary for game progress. They generally must be crafted into bars at a Furnace, after which they can craft several essential tools, weapons, armor, and other items. Some items require raw ores themselves, most commonly bricks and potions. Raw ores can also be used as plain blocks for construction. Ores are generally found as veins of placed blocks in the. Metallurgy superb trick to learn metal ores NCERT table 6.1 - Duration: 5:00. MISSION NEET UG #2020 49,152 views. 5:00

Extraction of Metals - Methods of Extraction of Metals

The ore dissolves in it while the impurities remain undissolved. For example, the bauxite ore contains Fe 2 O 3, SiO 2, etc., as impurities. The ore is powdered and treated with a solution of sodium hydroxide. A1 2 O 3 and SiO 2 present in the ore dissolve, forming sodium aluminate and sodium silicate respectively. The impurities are left. The active components of an ore vary based on mining site and ore quality. Based on the active metal components, natural ores can be divided by different species. Iron-based, manganese-based, copper-based, calcium-based and mixed ores are the most commonly studied examples for oxygen carriers

Minerals and Ores: Definition, Types and Formatio

Ore definition, a metal-bearing mineral or rock, or a native metal, that can be mined at a profit. See more Some examples of limited resources include coal, nuclear, natural gas, metal ores and oil. Limited resources are basically those resources that take a relatively long time to replenish. Unlimited resources or renewable resources, such as water, wind and soil, are the opposite of limited resources All metals are extracted from their ores. A considerable amount of energy is spent during the extraction process. As a result of pure metals possess more energy compared to their ores. Metal will not be stable in their high energy state. As a result, pure metals have a tendency to revert back to their natural state Some entire beds of marine sedimentary rocks contain enough metal to be considered ore. Examples include sedimentary beds rich in iron, manganese, and even lead, zinc, and copper. For some, hydrothermal fluids issued from submarine hot springs may have been involved. Others may simply have been deposited directly from metal-rich ocean water

other metals such at Cu, Ni and Co being produced as co-products. The economic values of the co-products are, in general, minor in comparison to the PGE values. • Ni-Cu dominant ores - Those ores . exploited primarily for the Ni and Cu content. The PGE are produced as a co-product. The economic importance of the PGE in these ores can var The ore is wetted by the oil and separates from the gangue in the form of froth. D. CONVERSION OF THE CONCENTRATED ORE INTO METALLIC OXIDE. Concentrated ore is converted into metal oxide either by Roasting or Calcination. I. Roasting. Process of heating the concentrated ore to a high temperature in the presence of excess air. Examples: II The anticipated demand for minor metals, used extensively in the green energy sector, is more worrying: between 2010-2030, the annual global demand for the elements gallium, indium, selinium.

Industrial Inorganic Chemistry - IGCSE Chemistry

Most metals are solid at room temperature, but this does not have to be the case. Mercury is liquid. Alloys are mixtures, where at least one part of the mixture is a metal. Examples of metals are aluminium, copper, iron, tin, gold, lead, silver, titanium, uranium, and zinc. Well-known alloys include bronze and steel Extraction of metals Ores. Some metals, typically the unreactive ones like gold, are found in the Earth's crust as pure elements. But most metals are found combined with other elements to form.

Bioleaching uses the catalytic properties of micro-organisms to dissolve metals into an aqueous solution. An example of bioleaching is the microbially catalyzed oxidation of chalcocite to solubilize copper in acidic water. in heaps to leach copper from secondary copper ores and to pretreat precious-metal ores in which the gold and silver. Environmental Impact of Metal Extraction. When metal is extracted from the ground, it creates a lot of negative impact to the environment. Look at what's happening in Brazil, the country that's fast becoming the world's primary supplier of gold.It is estimated that more than 2,000 tonnes of mercury have been released into the environment as a result of the modern Brazilian gold rush Matte is defined as a mixture sulfides that come from melting sulfide ores from metals such as copper, lead and nickel. Dictionary ! Menu. Dictionary An example of matte is the mixture that is left after melting copper and removing its impurities. noun. 2. 0

In ore deposits, the metals typically occur in complex polymetallic sulfide or oxide ores, whereas the metals of the urban mine are typically present in the form of alloys. Examples are the rare-earth permanent magnets, which consist of neodymium-iron-boron or samarium-cobalt alloys ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Ore Deposits 2. Origin of Ore Deposits 3. Types. Introduction to Ore Deposits: Minerals form chief source of all the industrial metals and non-metals. The commonly used metals like aluminum, copper, iron, lead, zinc etc. are all manufactured using minerals as raw materials. Similarly [ An ore is heated with chemicals until it melts and the pure metal separates out as a liquid. The liquid then cools and hardens. A few metals, such as gold, silver, and copper can be found in pure form as metal elements. Nuggets or flakes of these metals can be taken straight from rock, but this is uncommon But the majority is a metal oxide. In conclusion, in most cases, ores are simply metal oxides along with other small amounts of minerals. But not in all cases ores are metal oxides. For example, ZnS, Zinc Sulfide or also known as zincblendes is an ore of zinc

The mineral from which metal can be conveniently and profitably extracted, is called an ore. All ores are minerals but all the minerals are not ores. For example : Copper occurs in nature in the form of several mineral like copper pyrites, copper glance (Cu2S) and cuprite (Cu2O) silver is most concentrated in the minerals of the group first named. Of the base metal ore minerals, the most common primary ones are argentiferous galena, sphalerite, and pyrite, while native silver and the sulphides and arsenides ar

Different Types of Iron Ore - 911metallurgist

A rare metal produced from zinc-ore processing, as well as lead, iron and copper ores. In its purest form, it presents the color white and it's extremely shiny and malleable. Largest producers: China, South Korea and Japan Most elements can be considered metals. They are grouped together in the middle to the left-hand side of the periodic table. The metals consist of the alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals, lanthanides, and actinides. Properties of Metals. The metals share several common properties, including

Ores and Minerals - Introduction, Extraction

The most abundant rare earth elements are cerium, yttrium, lanthanum and neodymium. They have average crustal abundances that are similar to commonly used industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, zinc, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and lead. Again, they are rarely found in extractable concentrations Most metals that we use come from metal ores found in the earth's crust. Metal ores are made up of different compounds. Bauxite for example contains about 99 percent aluminum and magnetite about 72 percent iron. These metal ore deposits that contain large percentages of a single element are the easiest to extract List of Ores of Metals General Knowledge » Science » List of Ores of Metals. Subject No. of Seats Subject No. of Seats; Diploma in Clinical Pathology (DCP) 03: Diploma in Anaesthesiology (DA) 03: Diploma in Radio - diagnosis (DMRD) 03: Diploma in Orthopaedics(D Ortho) 02: Diploma in Obst. & Gynae (DGO) 02 Rocks are made up of crystals of metals. An ore is a rock that contains enough of a metal compounds for it to be worth extracting the metal. The most common ores contain oxides. An example is the ore haematite, which contains iron (III) oxide. Some contain other metal compounds. Malachite contains copper (II) carbonate For example, the most common ore of copper is chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2). The copper needs to be separated from the iron and sulphur to make copper metal and that involves complicated and very energy-intensive processes that are done at smelters or other types of refineries

Ores are located by evidence of metal enrichment. Geologists look for hints in rocks exposed near the surface, for example, the enrichment process often results in discoloration of the soil and rock. When such hints are found, geophysical survey's involving measuring gravity, magnetism, or radioactivity are conducted

magnetite (iron) and chromite (chromium) are examples of metallic mineral resources concentrated by crystal settling early in the crystallization of a magma Sites of former subduction-related volcanism are good places to look for rare metals like gold and copper because the felsic magmas that concentrate these metals are proudced in this settin The main ore minerals in bauxite are gibbsite, bohmeite, and diaspore. Antimony - The primary ore of antimony is it's sulfide, stibnite. Arsenic - Recovered from other metal processing streams (primarily from the sulfosalts such as tennantite etc.). Arsenopyrite is the most common arsenic mineral The most common metal ores are oxides and sulfides. Sulfides are the oldest ores, formed in the Earth ' s history when there was a lot of sulfur from volcanic activity. Oxides formed later when photosynthesis in plant In the end, it will be healthier for all. Manufacturers, too, are now more aware of the negative impact of metal extraction. To help the environment, they make use of recycled metal in their products, good examples of which are metal carports, steel cabinets, metal garage, and more

Types of MineralsA quick guide to making ores appear embedded in stone

The metal carbonate decomposes to form metal oxide. For example, ZnO(s) + CO 2 (g) (ii)Roasting (For sulphide ores). It is the process of heating the ore strongly in the presence of excess of air. As a result, the sulphide ore is converted into metal oxide. For example, (b)Reduction of the metal oxide to metal The six platinum-group elements (PGE): ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum, together with gold and silver, are considered to be precious metals 30 examples of metal oxides Lithium oxide : Is a white solid used as fusible in ceramic enamels. It is an attractive candidate for the solid culture material of a DT (deuterium tritium) fusion power plant because of its high lithium atom density (compared to other lithium or lithium metal) and its relatively high thermal conductivity ( LITHIUM. In this process, ore is dissolved in a suitable solvent and then the metal is precipitated by adding some electropositive metal. For example. In the extraction of silver from argentite, Ag 2 S , the ore is dissolved in sodium cyanide to give a complex salt

Ore. Ores contain minerals in a form of rock. Mostly ores contain minerals with metal elements. For example, there are iron ores, magnesium ores, gold ores etc. Sometimes, the metals are present as elements (not forming compounds) in ores and, in some ores, compounds like oxides, sulfides, silicates are found Metals and Nonmetals - Types, Properties and Differences Introduction: Every object around us can be categorized into two types of elements: metals or non-metals. Your books, clothes, pencil, water bottle, bag, table, the door are all examples of non-metals. Therefore, it is important to know the properties of Metals and Non-Metals and how to distinguish [ Most minerals are made up of a cation (a positively charged ion) or several cations and an anion (a negatively charged ion (e.g., S 2-)) or an anion complex (e.g., SO 42-). For example, in the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O 3), the cation is Fe 3+ (iron) and the anion is O 2- (oxygen)

Material adapted from: Hudson, T.L, Fox, F.D., and Plumlee, G.S. 1999. Metal Mining and the Environment, p. 7,20-27,31-35,38-39. Published by the American Geosciences Institute Environmental Awareness Series. Modern mining operations actively strive to mitigate potential environmental consequences of extracting metals, and such operations are strictly regulated in the Unite Metallic minerals are typically ores for the metals which they contain. Some metals occur as native metal (naturally occurring), for example: copper, gold, tin and silver can all occur as native metal. But most metals we mine are extracted from mi.. 10.1 (a) Conversion of Ore into Metal Oxide: These are briefly discussed below : (i) It is the process of heating the concentrated ore in the absence of air. The calcination process is used for the following changes : to convert carbonate ores into metal oxide. to remove water from the hydrated ores. to remove volatile impurities from the ore Nickel ore looks a lot like copper ore, but when the old miners couldn't get copper from it they blamed a mischievous sprite named Nickel. Cobalt. This is a metal that has been used for a long time to make blue pigment in paints and dyes. Today, it's primarily used in making wear-resistant, high-strength steel alloys

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What is Ore? - Definition, Types, Uses & Examples - Video

19Concentration of Ores: Hydraulic Washing, Froth FlotationKaveltorp, SWhat Are the Different Types of Metal Raw Materials?

The amount of metal in the ore to make it profitable varies widely with the current price of the metal and also with the amount of other metals present in the ore. Iron ore should contain about 30 percent iron if it is to be mined profitably. Gold ores containing as little as 0.044 ounce (1.25 grams) of gold per ton can be mined at a profit The value of ores changes over time due to society and technology. For example, rocks containing only 5% copper would have been considered unprofitable in the 19th century, but today, most copper comes from ores containing 0.4 to 1% copper. In industry, an ore must contain enough metal to make mining and extraction economical extracting metals from their ores: reduction with carbon electrolysis (using electricity). The method of extraction which is most appropriate depends on the reactivity of the metal being extracted. Most metals are found combined with other elements, as compounds in ores. These metals must be extracted from their ores before they can be made useful Mining is the process by which commercially valuable mineral resources are extracted (removed) from Earth's surface. These resources include ores (minerals usually containing metal elements), precious stones (such as diamonds), building stones (such as granite), and solid fuels (such as coal) Mercury oxide → Mercury metal + Oxygen. 2. Reduction by Coke (smelting) The Oxides of Metals like Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Sn and Pb are usually reduced by using carbon as reducing agent. In this process, coke is mixed with roasted ore and heated to a high temperature in a furnace. Coke reduces the metal oxides into free metal. For example

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